Defined Benefit Plan Contribution Limit for 2024: [IRS Age + Solo Maximum]

What is the maximum amount I can contribute to my defined benefit plan? This question gets asked all the time for both solo and group plans. Defined benefit plan contribution limits can be challenging.

These plans are great for small and large business owners who are looking for large, tax-deductible contributions. But they are very complex and requirement annual administration.

For self-employed people looking to make maximum annual contributions, it is typical to see funding as high as $400,000. This of course depends on a few variables, including the owner’s age and compensation. In this article, we answer many of the common funding questions. Let’s jump in!

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Looking for the 2024 Defined Benefit Plan Contribution Limit?

2024 Plan Contribution Limit

  • The IRS contribution limit is capped at $3.5 million. The table below details contribution amounts by compensation and age. It also details 401(k) plan limits.
  • The compensation limit is $345,000 and the benefit annuity limit is $275,000.
  • Take a look here at the 2023 contribution limits.

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What are the contribution limits?

Defined benefit plans have become popular for the self-employed. The plans are set up to provide a predetermined retirement benefit to employees (or their beneficiaries). But what are the defined benefit limits for a solo plan?

At the end of the day, there is no set maximum defined benefit plan contribution. Instead, the final benefit payment at retirement is limited. This is commonly referred to as the 415 limits.

Based on the limits, a participating employee with ten years in a plan may receive a maximum annual benefit amount of $265,000. This would start at age 62.

Maximum contribution to defined benefit plan

The IRS will place a compensation maximum used in the benefit calculation. For the year 2024, the maximum compensation is $345,000. The IRS annually indexes these compensation and benefit limits.

This is either in the form of a certain lump sum dollar amount or a specific percentage of compensation. In contrast, a defined contribution plan is typically employee funded. Think 401k, 403b, and IRA’s.

Employer contributions to a defined benefit plan are very complex to determine and require the work of an actuary. The assets of the plan are held in a pool, rather than individual accounts, and as a result, the employees have no voice in investment decisions.

Age401(k) deferral401(k) Profit Sharing (1)Cash Balance (2)Total
30$23,000$46,000$72,000$141,000
31$23,000$46,000$76,000$145,000
32$23,000$46,000$79,000$148,000
33$23,000$46,000$83,000$152,000
34$23,000$46,000$88,000$157,000
35$23,000$46,000$92,000$161,000
36$23,000$46,000$97,000$166,000
37$23,000$46,000$102,000$171,000
38$23,000$46,000$107,000$176,000
39$23,000$46,000$113,000$182,000
40$23,000$46,000$118,000$187,000
41$23,000$46,000$124,000$193,000
42$23,000$46,000$131,000$200,000
43$23,000$46,000$137,000$206,000
44$23,000$46,000$144,000$212,000
45$23,000$46,000$152,000$220,000
46$23,000$46,000$159,000$227,000
47$23,000$46,000$168,000$248,000
48$23,000$46,000$176,000$245,000
49$23,000$46,000$185,000$254,000
50$30,500$46,000$195,000$271,500
51$30,500$46,000$205,000$281,500
52$30,500$46,000$215,000$291,500
53$30,500$46,000$226,000$302,500
54$30,500$46,000$238,000$314,500
55$30,500$46,000$250,000$326,500
56$30,500$46,000$263,000$339,500
57$30,500$46,000$276,000$352,500
58$30,500$46,000$290,000$366,500
59$30,500$46,000$305,000$381,500
60$30,500$46,000$321,000$397,500
61$30,500$46,000$337,000$413,500
62$30,500$46,000$354,000$421,500
63$30,500$46,000$347,000$423,500
64$30,500$46,000$340,000$416,500
65$30,500$46,000$333,000$409,500
66$30,500$46,000$325,000$401,500
67$30,500$46,000$318,000$394,500
68$30,500$46,000$310,000$386,500
69$30,500$46,000$302,000$378,500
70$30,500$46,000$293,000$369,500

What is the maximum contribution I can make?

Once established, the employer must continue to fund the plan, even if the company has no profits in a given year. Since the employer makes a specific promise to pay a certain sum in the future, it is the solo employer who assumes the risk of fluctuations in the value of the investment pool.

Before 401k’s became popular in the early 1990s, many companies offered a traditional pension. Typically an employee worked a set amount of years, for a certain amount of income at retirement; there were no bells and whistles and no options other than the life annuity at retirement.

What is the annual benefit limit?

Obviously as these became popular, the IRS imposed solo limits and regulations on defined benefit plans. They typically adjust it each year due to cost of living, much like IRA and 401k contribution limits.

Contributions to a defined benefit plan are based on actuarial assumptions and computations. These calculations will be determined up front.

Defined Benefit Plan Contribution Limits by age

The contributions are based on the required amount needed to provide benefits under 415. This is why plans must have an actuary review and certify the plans annually. The compensation amount of $275,000 is not entirely accurate. The annual defined benefit limits may not exceed the lesser of:

  1. 100% of the employee’s compensation averaged for the highest 3 consecutive years; or
  2. $275,000 (as discussed)
DB Plan AdvantagesDB Plan Disadvantages
Eligible for QDI deduction under Section 199Mandatory contributions
Flexible min/max/target range ✅Higher administrative costs
$100k plus tax deductionsConservative investments
Tax-deferred growthPermanent plan structure

As a general rule, the annual solo retirement benefit for an employee under a defined benefit pension plan cannot exceed the lower of: (1) 100% of the employee’s average compensation or W2 for the highest 3 consecutive years; or (2) $275,000 for tax year 2024 ($245,000 for tax year 2022 and $230,000 for tax year 2021).

The assumed solo benefit payout at retirement is as follows:

YearAmount
2024$275,000
2023$265,000
2022$245,000
2021$230,000
2020$230,000
2019$225,000

How can I maximize my contributions?

There is no maximum dollar amount per se. The solo contribution amount must be enough to satisfy an annual benefit paid out in the future. This will not be able to exceed 100% of the employee’s average compensation over 3 consecutive years.

The employee may have a W2 that is higher than the limitation, but the actuary will only use the maximum contribution.

Annual contributions under a defined benefit plan can be upwards of $400,000. This is especially true for employees getting close to retirement age. The maximum contribution to a defined benefit plan is substantially higher than a 401(k) plan.

defined benefit plan calculator

But to truly maximize contributions, the plans can be combined with a 401k plan. With a “combo” plan, the actuary will still perform cross-testing on both plans to make sure they are in compliance.

The company has the ultimate responsibility to invest the plan assets for the benefit of the employees. If the investment does not generate the required return, the business owner may be forced to make additional contributions to essentially “catch-up” the account balance. That is why it is critical that the company makes two important investment decisions:

  • Proper asset allocation – this has a significant impact on investment returns. If the assumed interest rate is high there could be large shortfalls if anticipated returns are not met.
  • Addressing plan shortfalls – if the plan assets do not result in the expected returns, elective 401(k) contributions may be paused to free up funds to finance the required defined benefit plan contributions. Certain shortfalls can also be amortized based on established IRS criteria.

Prior service adjustments

There are several ways you can get higher contribution levels. One such way is to include a prior service or previous service opening credit in year one.

This essentially allows the company to bake a contribution for employees who worked in prior years. as a general rule. You can get an additional 50% of the normal contribution limit based on a current pay credit. This allows a business owner with substantial net income in a current year to make a significant contribution.

But remember that a substantial contribution or frontloading a plan with prior service will help tremendously in year one, but it will tend to reduce contributions in future years.

Remember that solo plans are looking to target a benefit amount at retirement. So, every dollar contributed today is one less dollar that can be contributed in the future.

Defined benefit plan contribution limits

In addition to adding prior service, there are other options if you want to make more significant contributions. For example, the IRS typically allows a plan to accrue up to 150% of the accrued benefit. This allows the plan or company to make larger contributions above the individual employee benefits. This essentially allows the company to pre-fund or target a larger contribution in a year in which income was higher.

But funding adds up to 150% of the accrued benefit and will reduce contributions in the future. So make sure you consider it in a year with substantial net income.

maximum contribution to defined benefit plan

These plans are age, waited in compensation based. So the older you are, and the more money you make, the higher your contributions will be.

Defined benefit plans, though, do not have a contribution limit per se. They are driven by the 415 limits, which are the same limits that define contribution plan funding. That’s why the maximum contribution to a defined benefit plan is so high.

But defined benefit plans provide funding ranges. This includes a minimum, maximum, and target funding level. The target funding level is essentially a straight-line contribution That will directly lead to the accrued benefit at retirement.

Take a look at defined benefit plan contributions by age in the table below:

Contribution Averages by AgeSolo contribution Limits by Age
Age 30 = $80,000Age 30 = $120,000
Age 40 = $120,000Age 40 = $165,000
Age 50 = $185,000Age 50 = $240,000
Age 60 = $240,000Age 60 = $345,000

Consistently profitable businesses

But clients have questions. What professions or industries make the most sense for defined benefit plans? Does a plan make sense for my business?

The truth is that many companies and professionals are ideal candidates. The following are great candidates for defined benefit plans:

  1. Businesses with consistent high profits (historically and forward-looking)
  2. Professional service companies like attorneys, physicians, engineers, CPAs, etc.)
  3. Companies who desire to improve morale and employee retention
  4. Owners trying to “catch up” on retirement savings
  5. Owners looking to maximize tax deductions

A defined benefit plan doesn’t require high profits to be effective. But it certainly helps. It can be more challenging if your business is cyclical in nature and subject to boom and bust cycles. A business with inconsistent profits or cash flows can do very well with defined benefit plans, but it becomes more difficult in a down cycle.

Ideally, persistent and high cash flows and the expectation of decent cash flows over the foreseeable future make the most sense. We’ve seen companies in manufacturing, technology, distribution, real estate, and various services. It might make sense if a business owner earns more than $300,000 a year and is motivated by saving taxes.

Owners looking to maximize tax savings

Retirement savings are excellent. But lowering income tax is one of the best benefits and what drives the majority of business owners to solo defined benefit plans. Combining marginal state and federal tax rates can make these plans a no-brainer for business people searching for tax deferrals. Any defined benefit plan funding will come off at the owner’s marginal tax rate.

Many clients save over 40% in taxes when considering their marginal rates. But a cash balance plan can be especially appealing in states like California, where the top marginal income tax rate is 13.3%. With the maximum federal rate at 37%, employers who reside in states with no (or negligible) state tax can make a big difference.

How much can I contribute?

The defined benefit limits will be significantly higher than those of a 401(k) plan. That is unless a business owner is young (under 30 years old). The contribution difference grows higher as age increases.

This enables solo business owners to put away large amounts into retirement and build tax-deferred accounts. That is why defined benefit plans are great for business owners who have higher-than-average compensations. It may be the best financial decision you can make for your future.

Bottom line

It is important to understand all your options when determining which type of retirement plans you will offer in your company or practice. We can help you put together a solid IRS approved plan to your advantage.

Paul Sundin

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6 thoughts on “Defined Benefit Plan Contribution Limit for 2024: [IRS Age + Solo Maximum]”

  1. Paul, I appreciate your articles. I have a question. Is it possible to continue to make tax deferred contributions to your s-Corp Defined benefit plan once you stop receiving a w-2 from the s-Corp? Thanks!

    Reply
    • Hi Christina – I am glad you like the articles! To answer your question, as a general rule you cannot make add’l contributions when you don’t have a W2. These are company sponsored plans for qualifying employees, so you need to have a W2. However, the company might have to make a contribution if the accrued benefit under the plan is low but this would usually not be much. My question though is why you would still have a plan open if you have no W2. Is your plan over-funded? Usually it makes more sense to terminate the plan and roll it over into an IRA.

      Reply
  2. Paul,
    I love your articles and distinct answers, no wasting time. Thanks!
    I have a DBP over 7 years in my S-Corp that just breached $2M. I’m the only participant. My TPA just told me I cannot accumulate more than $2.9M.
    I was shocked. I thought the $2.9M was a contribution limit, not a growth limit.
    I’m worried. I expect to work 10-12 more years. Is this correct? I’m actually in a panic.
    What would you do?

    Reply
  3. How much can an employee contribute to a DB plan for a company they work for which can be deduced from taxes? You don’t really mention this aspect.

    Reply
    • Hi George – There are no employee contributions for a DB plan. All contributions are made and deducted by the company.

      Reply

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